While riding, we expect a comfortable and smooth control over the bike. We even find adjust-ability for many things, such as seat, handlebar, paddle, brake pads, etc. so that while riding, we get the feeling that is “I own the bike”! But sometimes you may feel that some parts of the bike became too tight or too loose, which is creating issues for a smooth and comfortable ride
One piece of equipment like that is “Headset.” Although you won’t have to adjust it after purchasing an excellent road bike, still, after a few years a frequent use, you may find irregularities on the behavior of the headset. Many even wonder which basic adjustment is actually right for the headset and how tight a bike headset should be. Let’s find out!
What is a headset?
The headset is a small part of a bike but has tremendous importance. The headset helps to manage the whole bike and keeps the fork steady in its place. It works more like a bridge between the bike frame and fork. It requires a proper adjustment so that it deters the excess pressure and also the right amount of rotation in the front wheel for cornering, braking, and steering and turning point. So you’ve to take care of these components regularly.
Although there’re different types of headset available, we’re going to talk about only two most common types.
Types of headset
Threaded headsets aren’t much seen nowadays, but they were considered the standard type even a few years ago. Threaded headsets have multiple components and a bit oversized. The bearing of a threaded headset is positioned into a cup and pressed inside the head tube. Although its limitation, such as a required matching fork, extra-weight, specific spanners size, etc. have reduced its appeal.
Threadless headsets are nowadays the most popular and most used. Almost on every men and women's bike, you’ll find a threadless headset. Their design is simple, easy to maintain, and with any standard tools, such as Torx or hey keys, it can be accessed. It doesn’t have a threaded head or threaded carbon steer tube, and you can adjust the height with spacers and top cap bolt. It also has expanders that protect the carbon steers or fork steerer from crash injuries. Although you’ll find different types within the threadless headsets, the basic assembly is uniform for all of that.
How to know if headset is too tight or loose?
There’s standard adjustability for all kinds of components. When you start to feel uncomfortable at the angular contact bearings or facing a bearing tension while controlling the bike like every other day, then you know something is not right. Just like every other part of the bike, headsets are equally important. If the headset is poorly adjusted, it’ll create an issue for smooth riding and even can damage the frame.
But if you ask how tight a road bike or a mountain bike's headset should be, there’s no particular answer to this question. The same can be said for electric bikes and hybrid bikes too. Neither too tight nor too loose is preferable. If it’s too tight, you’ll feel like you’re fighting with the bike as controlling handlebars, front wheel movement, having grips, and turning to other sides will be tiresome. And if the headset is too loose, the components of the bike will constantly crash with each other, and you’ll feel like you’re losing control.
The perfect adjustment for a headset is accessible to the handlebar and a steady position and correct amount of knocking sensation. Among the bearings, there should be a standard space that wouldn’t make you feel uncomfortable. Then you’ll see that the headset components is in a perfect tightening position.
How to adjust your headset
Knowing how much tight a bike headset should be is very important, but at the same time, it’s also essential to understand how to adjust them when needed. Because you can’t expect that your headset won’t ever show any issues. After frequent use, you may feel the headset it either too tight or too clumsy. And here’s how you can solve the issue with necessary step instructions.
There aren’t many tools needed for a headset adjustment. The most common and proper tools are:
- Allen key/ Allen wrench
- Correct torque wrench
Step-1: First, check what the issue means is if the current headset or the headset parts are too tight or too loose to the front end. Then loosen the stem pinch bolts. Back the pinch bolts and apply a light hand pressure side by side, and the step will be moved. A 5 mm allen key is usually the correct size to preload the loose headset bearings.
Step-2: As you’ve already removed the upper headset cup, a star nut will get visible. Now to pull the fork steer upwards, apply torque wrench at the headset top bolt where the bearing is loaded. Be sure that the round steerer spacer or the top of the carbon stem is in a correct level means at least 3mm to the top of the head tube, although it’s only for aluminum steers. Carbon steers would require a 5mm spacer so that it doesn’t crash with the top head tube.
Step-3: Based on the previous step, tightening or loosening feeling, you’ve to make the adjustment. Add tension to the bearings with a 5 mm allen key and pull the headed star nuts upwards. It’ll move the fork and bearing surfaces into a tighter position inside the lower headset cup.
Step-4: Now, check if the adjustability feels perfect or not with the existing parts. Try the front brake and front wheel and move the bike back and forth with the handlebar stem. If you still get any loosening feeling or unusual headset tension, keep adding headset preload tension until the movement of front and rear bike tires feels satisfactory.
Step-5: Apply grease to the headset bearings regularly, but only the light ones. Also, remember not to add any grease to the stem, as the stem should stay stable with a tight grip. Only apply to the outer side and the bearings.
Always remember that a perfect headset should move freely means the rotation on both sides should be smooth and easy to handle but without any clumsiness. Usually, after the first assembly, headsets don’t require any adjustments for at least 2-3 years. But if you face any issues earlier before the time, fix it as soon as possible. If necessary check the headset manual. Otherwise, you’ll lose control over the bike while riding. And regularly check if the headset, stem clamp bolts and brake movement if perfectly adjusted or not.